Department of Strategic & Nuclear Studies

STUDENT INTERACTION POINT

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NATIONAL DEFENCE UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF CONTEMPORARY STUDIES

DEPARTMENT OF STRATEGIC AND NUCLEAR STUDIES

MSc STRATEGIC STUDIES

THREE COURSES BEING OFFERED

COURSE 1
SS-5MISSILE & SPACE PROGRAM03 Cr Hrs
OBJECTIVES

The student will be confronted with a wide array of ideas on the actual use of information in terms of its deployment during conflict and war. In essence, the course describes the salient ways that information can be utilized to influence the minds of a target audience through psychological operations. This includes the population, armed forces and also the strategic leadership of the opposing state or other contending group or party. The history and development of information dissemination and psychological operations is discussed in the context of the methods used, and the ethical issues that may arise therein. A number of case studies will be use to challenge the students, who will, as a result, learn to analyse and evaluate selected contexts within which they can employ various media through which information can be disseminated to achieve strategic objectives.

CONTENTS

PART I - An Introduction to the Fourth Dimension & the Space Race - (Week 1-2)

Strategic Dimensions of Space

The Original Space Race

PART II - Development of Missile Propulsion & Warhead Delivery Systems - (Week 3-7)

An Introduction to Nuclear Delivery Systems

What is a Delivery System?

The Delivery of Nuclear Payloads

Conventional vs. Nuclear Payloads

Development of Aircraft Delivery 1 – 50s-60s

The Bomber

The Bomber Gap

Ballistic Missile (Rocket) Systems

Evolution of Missile Technology

Ballistic Missiles

Categories of Missile

Missile Development & Strategic Implications

Rocket Engines

Solid, Liquid, and Fuel

Injector Systems

Missile Performance

Strategic Targeting

Cruise Missile Systems and Smart Weapons

Cruise Missiles

Propulsion Systems

Navigation & Guidance Systems

Smart weapons

Land Based Systems

The Silo

Characteristics of a Silo

Physical Construction

Mobile Launchers

Artillery

Countermeasures

Sea Based Systems Missile Systems

Development of Sea Based Systems

SLBM

Types of Submarine

Characteristics

Comparing Submarines (US-Russia-China-UK-France-India)

Countermeasures

Development of Aircraft Delivery 2 – 1970-Present

Development of the Modern Bomber

Detection and Stealth

Fifth Generation – Impact

Future Air Delivery Systems

Countermeasures

PART III- Satellite Systems and the Militarisation of Space - (Week 8-12)

Satellites Development

Satellite Deployment

An Introduction to Geographical Positioning Systems

Militarisation of Space - Treaties, Conventions, and Agreements

The Outer Space Treaty

Weaponisation of Space – Strategic Implications

Anti-Satellite Weapons

Ground/Sea Based

Space Based

PART IV – Ballistic Missile Defence Systems - (Week 13-16)

BMD Fundamentals

Types of BMD

Phase I ---Boost Phase

Phase II –Mid-Course Phase

Phase III – Terminal Phase

Ground Based BMD

Sea Based BMD

Aegis BMD

Space Based Systems

Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI – Star Wars)

Multi-Layered BMD

Strategic Implications of BMD

BMD Challenges

CORE READING

(All the following PDF format Articles will be provided by the Instructor)

ABM - Under The Dome – Today

Advancing the Frontiers of Space Exploration

A History of Ballistic Missile Development in the DPRK

Averting a Sino-U.S. Space Race

Beyond Horizons, A Half Century of Air Force Space Leadership

Changing the Rules - President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative Decision

China’s ASAT Test - strategic response

China’s Space Program - An Overview

Dark Mission - The Secret History of NASA

Defending Space - US Anti-Satellite Warfare & Space Weaponry

From Polaris to Trident - The Development of US Fleet Ballistic Missile

Germany's Secret Weapons in World War II

Global Positioning System

How China Wins a Potential Space War

India’s Space Ambitions - Headed Toward Space War

Indo-US Strategic Cooperation into the 21st Century - More than Words

Iran’s missile development

Iran's Ballistic Missile Programs

Is the Weaponisation of Space Inevitable?

Joint Doctrine – Countering Air and Missile Threats

Legal Aspects Concerning the Militarization of Space

Militarization of Space

New Developments in Iran's Missile Capabilities - Implications beyond the Middle East

North Korea’s Nuclear-Missile Development and Japan’s Response

Peaceful and Military Uses of Outer Space - Law & Policy

Preventing the Weaponisation of an Arms Race in Outer Space

Preventing the Weaponisation of Space - Us Dominance in Space

SDI - Strategic Defence Initiative

Space Militarisation - Implication for US - Chinese Relations

Space Weaponisation and Space Security - A Chinese Perspective Superpower Rivalry and

Star Wars - US Tools of Space Supremacy

Strategic Defense Initiative - Moral Questions, Public Choices

The Indian MIRV Technology - An Overview

The Road to Ballistic Missile Defense, 1983—2007

The Rocket and the Reich - Peenemunde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era

Theatre Missile Defense and South Asia - A Volatile Mix

U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense -Backgrounder –Council on Foreign Relations Weaponisation vs. Militarization of Space

Weapons in Space and the Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation

Why the Weaponisation of Space Should Not Be Pursued

RECOMMENDED READING

Backyard Rocketry - Converting Model Rockets into Explosive Missiles

Colonize Space - Open the Age of Reason

Encyclopaedia - Space Sciences - Complete 4 Volumes (2002)

Encyclopaedia of the Scientific Revolution - From Copernicus to Newton

Encyclopaedia of the Solar System 2nd ed

Encyclopaedia of U.S. Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems Volume 1 Post World War II Fighters 1945-1973

Entering Space - Creating a Space-faring Civilisation

Forty Years After Space Race What’s Next

New Vanguard 82 - V-2 Ballistic Missile 1942-52

Space and Astronomy - An Illustrated Guide to Science

Space Race Propaganda - U.S. Coverage of the Sputniks in 1957

Conflict - The Long Shadow of the Cold War on the 21st Century

The Scud and Other Russian Ballistic Missile Vehicles

COURSE 2
SS-5Irregular and Asymmetric Warfare03 Cr Hrs
OBJECTIVES

State and non-state entities are increasingly adopting asymmetric means to counter their adversaries, including terrorism and insurgency to influence or control a population, avoid sustained open battle, and win the political contest by avoiding decisive military engagements. Such conflicts are inherently protracted, and immensely costly in terms of human and material losses. This course will educate and provide students with a strong foundation in the conceptual, definitional, strategic and ethical issues related to the study of irregular warfare, its history, and the theory behind guerrilla and revolutionary warfare, and terrorism; with special attention being provided to actual conflicts through case studies drawn from the 20th and 21st centuries. Students will explore the underlying political, social, economic, and other factors that lead to the birth or evolution of insurgencies and terrorist movements, and the competing strategic approaches to insurgency and counterinsurgency in particular, by tracing evolutionary phases of insurgency and counter-insurgency from the Maoist version of the "people's war" in China to the development of global jihad. This course also concentrates on the issues and dilemmas that conventional militaries have faced in trying to adapt to irregular warfare, with specific reference to Pakistan and whether or not its military is the ideal or only instrument in defeating its multiple complex insurgencies. Attention will also be given to an exploration of the criminal-terrorist-insurgency nexus, with specific regards to narco-insurgencies.

CONTENTS

PART I – Introduction to Irregular and Asymmetric Warfare

Definitions, the Terrorist-Insurgency Continuum, 4th Gen Warfare, Non-Kinetic Warfare

Underlying conditions of Irregular Warfare

The Nature of Political Violence

History of Guerrilla Warfare

Introduction to Revolutionary Warfare

PART II – Counterinsurgency Theory

Classic Theories of Insurgency

The Nature of Insurgency

Counter Insurgency in Practice

PART III – Terrorism and Counter Terrorism

Introduction to Terrorism

States & Terrorism

Conceptualising Terrorism

Characteristics and Motivations of Terrorists

Non-State Actors & Terrorism

Counter Terrorism – Theory and Practice

Super Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction – Ground Realities

Rationale behind Using WMD

Characteristics of WMD

Nuclear Terrorism

Characteristics of Nuclear Terrorism

Potential Terrorist Nuclear Weapons Employment: Feasibility

Sources and Methods of Acquisition of Nuclear Materials

Radiological Terrorism

Characteristics of Radiological Terrorism – The Dirty Bomb

The Use of Radiological Materials for Terrorism

Sources and Methods of Acquisition of Radiological Materials

Bio Terrorism

Characteristics of BioTerrorism

Important Biological Agents – Definitions and Characteristics and their Use

Sources and Methods of Acquisition of Biological Materials

Chemical Terrorism

Characteristics of Chemical Terrorism

Important Biological Agents – Definitions and Characteristics and their Use

Sources and Methods of Acquisition of Nuclear Materials

PART IV – Irregular Warfare in the Future: an Extrapolation

Hybrid Warfare

The Insurgency-Crime Nexus: The FARC, Taliban, and Mexican TCOs

The Al Qaeda Story and its Affiliates and Offshoots (ISIS)

Full-Spectrum Warfare

Future Wars

CASE STUDIES

Malaysian Emergency,

Algerian War of Independence

The Vietnam War

The Caucasus, Russia

Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF – Afghanistan)

Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)

The Syrian Civil War

Nigeria and Boko Haram

CORE READING

Bard E. O’Neill, Insurgency and Terrorism, 2nd Edition, Revised, Potomac Books, Inc., 2005, Chapter 2, The Nature of Insurgency, pp. 15-44.

David Killcullen, The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One, Oxford University Press, 2009, Chapter 1, pp. 1-38.

Mao Tse-Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, translated from the Chinese by Samuel Griffith II, University of Illinois Press, 1961.

John Shy and Thomas W. Collier, "Revolutionary War," in Makers of Modern Strategy, edited by Peter Paret, Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 815-862.

Bard E. O’Neill, Insurgency and Terrorism, 2nd Edition, Revised, Potomac Books, Inc., 2005, Chapter 3, Insurgent Strategies, pp. 45-70.

John Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam, University of Chicago Press, Chapter 2, pp. 15-33.

David Galula, Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice, Praeger Security International, 1964, Chapters 5-7, pp. 70-134.

Gian P. Gentile,”A Strategy of Tactics: Population-centric COIN and the Army,” Parameters, Autumn 2009, pp. 5-17.

Emil Souleimanov, "The Republic of Dagestan: the epicenter of Islamist Insurgency in Russia's North Caucasus," IPRIS Occasional Paper, December 2011.

Kristin M. Bakke, “Copying and Learning from Outsiders? Assessing Diffusion from Transnational Insurgents in the Chechen Wars,

presented at the workshop “Mobilizing across Borders: Transnational Dynamics of Civil War,” Peace Research Institute, Oslo, August 20-21, 2010.

Emil Souleimanov, "The Caucasus Emirate: Genealogy of an Islamist Insurgency," Middle East Policy Council, 2013.

Andrew F. Krepinevich, The Army and Vietnam, JHU Press, 1988, Chapters 6-7, pp. 164-24.

John Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam, University of Chicago Press, Chapters 4-5, pp. 59-85, 87-111.

David Patraeus, “Learning Counterinsurgency: Observations from Soldiering in Iraq," Military Review, 86:1, Jan-Feb 2006, pp. 2-12.

Andrew Kydd and Barbara Walter, "The Strategies of Terrorism," International Security, 31:1, Summer 2006, pp. 49-80.

Max Abrahms, "Why Terrorism Does Not Work," International Security, 31:2, Fall 2006, pp. 42-78.

Bruce Hoffman, Inside Terrorism,,pp. 197-295.

RECOMMENDED READING

USAID, Guide to the Drivers of Violent Extremism, Produced by Guilain Denoeux with Lynn Carter of Management Systems International, 2009.

Michael Mousseau, “Market Civilization and Its Clash with Terror,” International  Security 27:3, Winter 2002/03, pp. 5-29.

Jeff Victoroff, "The Mind of the Terrorist: A Review and Critique of Psychological Approaches," Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49:1, 2005, pp. 3-42.

Arreguin-Toft, Ivan. How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 250pp.

Davis, Richard G., ed. The U.S. Army and Irregular Warfare, 1775-2007: Selected Papers from the 2007 Conference of Army Historians. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 2008. 252pp.

Freier, Nathan. Strategic Competition and Resistance in the 21st Century: Irregular, Catastrophic, Traditional, and Hybrid Challenges in Context. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2007. 103pp.

Goodman, A. Asymmetric Strategies in the Middle East. Shrivenham: Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Advanced Research and Assessment Group, 2007. 28pp. http://www.da.mod.uk/colleges/arag/document-listings/middle-east/07%2829%29AG.pdf

Gray, Colin S. Another Bloody Century: Future Warfare. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005. 431pp.

Gray, Colin S. Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy: Can the American Way of War Adapt? Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, March 2006. 64pp.

Gregory, Robert H., Jr. Army Transformation and the Future Combat System. Monterey: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008. 135pp.

Guevara, Ernesto. Guerrilla Warfare. 1961 reprint. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985. 440pp.

Hammes, Thomas X. The Sling and the Stone: On War in the 21st Century. St. Paul: Zenith Press, 2004. 321pp.

Hudson, Jeff D. Transforming the American Soldier: Educating the Warrior-Diplomat. Monterey: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2005. 59pp.

Krause, Michael G. Square Pegs for Round Holes: Current Approaches to Future Warfare and the Need to Adapt. Duntroon: Land Warfare Studies Centre, June 2007. 41pp. http://www.defence.gov.au/Army/lwsc/docs/WP_132.pdf

Lowther, Adam. Americans and Asymmetric Conflict: Lebanon, Somalia, and Afghanistan. Westport: Praeger Security International, 2007. 233pp.

Morgan, Forrest E. "Escalation in Irregular Warfare." In Dangerous Thresholds: Managing Escalationin the 21st Century. Santa Monica: RAND, 2008. 245pp. http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2008/RAND_MG614.pdf

Newton, Richard D., et al. Contemporary Security Challenges: Irregular Warfare and Indirect Approaches. Hurlburt Field: JSOU Press, February 2009. 95pp.

Peters, Ralph. Wars of Blood and Faith: The Conflicts That Will Shape the Twenty-First Century. Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books, 2007. 367pp.

Rid, Thomas. War 2.0: Irregular Warfare in the Information Age. Westport: Praeger Security International, 2009.

Jordan, David. "Irregular Warfare." In Understanding Modern Warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 371pp.

Hoffman, Frank G. "Preparing for Hybrid Wars." Marine Corps Gazette 91 (March 2007): 57-61.

Horowitz, Michael C., and Dan A. Shalmon. "The Future of War and American Military Strategy." Orbis 53 (Spring 2009): 300-318.

Kemp, Ian. "Asymmetrical Warfare." Armada International 31 (April-May 2007): Supplement.

Korb, Lawrence J., and Max A. Bergmann. "Restructuring the Military." Issues in Science and Technology 25 (Fall 2008): 35-44.

Mazarr, Michael J. "The Folly of 'Asymmetric War'." Washington Quarterly 31 (Summer 2008): 33-53.

http://www.twq.com/08summer/docs/08summer_mazarr.pdf

Melcher, David F. "Equipping to Win the Long War." Army 56 (October 2006): 213-214, 216, 218, 220.

Nagl, John, and Brian M. Burton. "Dirty Windows and Burning Houses: Setting the Record Straight on Irregular Warfare." Washington Quarterly 32 (April 2009): 91-101.

Salmoni, Barak. "The Fallacy of 'Irregular' Warfare." RUSI Journal 152 (August 2007): 18-24.

Schake, Kori. "Choices for the Quadrennial Defense Review." Orbis 53 (Summer 2009): 439-456.

Strachan, Hew. "Strategy and the Limitation of War." Survival 50 (February-March 2008): 31-54.

Wass de Czege, Huba. "Traditional and Irregular War." Army 56 (March 2006): 12-18.

 COURSE 3
SNS-554Revolution in Military Affairs/Technology/Warfare03 Cr Hrs
OBJECTIVES

In a world of drones, terrorism, and nuclear proliferation, has the very nature of war itself changed since the fall of Communism a mere twenty three years ago? In our age of digital technology we still follow the linear evolution of warfare and humanity once calmly traced by military and strategic historians? This class will explore the latest in "Revolution in Military Affairs" (RMA) that stems from the idea of total dominance through information technology and situates these discussions in the political, social and cultural role of war and conflict today. Topics to be explored include whether the increasing reliance on private military companies as public budgets shrink, and the question of moral obligation for military intervention. This course will also discuss phenomenon such as asymmetric warfare, cyber war, and future warfare, which includes the exponential development of technology and its impact on military affairs through the use of advancements in robotics, cybernetics, artificial intelligence, cryogenics and genetics in future warfare, as well as providing a thorough grounding of the possibility of the singularity and its impact on warfare. As a whole the class will undertake a thorough examination of the changing nature of war and conflict in the 21st Century. Students will have the opportunity to explore their own specific interests. Most importantly, the readings are meant to create a dialogue between theory and the world out there in order to explore the so-called nature of war. As such, the course will rely heavily on recent and current affairs from news media and policy analysis.

CONTENTS

PART I – Introduction to Revolution in Military Affairs - (Week 1-2)

Introduction to the Course

The Concept of a Revolution in Military Affairs

PART II – The Changing Nature of War

Historical Revolutions in Military Affairs

Military Innovation Theories

PART III – Organization Theory

Transformation: the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) and Beyond

PART IV – War, the Media, and the Age of Information

Mass Media Revolution

Information Warfare

Cyber Warfare

Psychological Operations

Electronic Warfare

PART V – Technology Trends and New Areas of Warfare

New Operational Concepts

Network-Centric Warfare

Real-Time Situational Awareness

The Full Spectrum Dominance

PART VI – Private Military – The Age of Contractors

Security Companies

Blackwater / Xe

PART VII - The Future of War

Exponential Technological Advancement

Automated Warfare

Ethical Rationale and Implications

Drone Development

Airpower

Ground Combat

Robotics

Cybernetics

Augmentation

Artificial Intelligence

Genetics

The Singularity

Transhuman Warfare

CORE READING

Eliot Cohen, ‘Technology and Warfare’, in Baylis et al, Strategy in the Contemporary World, Third Edition (Oxford; OUP, 2010) 141-157

Martin Van Creveld, Technology and War, from 2000 B.C. to the Present (New York: The Free Press), skim 1-6, read 311-320.

Max Boot, War Made New. Technology, Warfare, and the Course of History, 1500 to Today. (New York: Gotham Books, 2006), skim 307-317, read 352-384.

Stephen Biddle, “Afghanistan and the Future of Warfare,” Foreign Affairs 82 (2) (March/April 2003), skim 31-46.

Knox, MacGregor & Murray, Williamson, ‘Thinking about revolutions in warfare’, in MacGregor Know & Williamson Murray (ed), The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 1-14. (However, the full edition is extremely useful)

P. W. Singer, Wired For War. The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century (New York: The Penguin Press, 2009), 19-42, 179-204.

Stephen D. Biddle, “Speed Kills? Reassessing the Role of Speed, Precision, and Situation Awareness in the Fall of Saddam,” The Journal of Strategic Studies, 30 (1) (February 2007), 3-46.

Richard Andres, et. al., “Winning with Allies. The Strategic Values of the Afghan Model”, International Security, 30 (3) (Winter 2005-06), 124-160.

Coker, Christopher, The Future of War (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004).

Colin Gray, Another Bloody Century (London; Weidnfeld & Nicholson, 2005), 98 -130.

Stephen D. Biddle, “Allies, Airpower, and Modern Warfare. The Afghan Model in Afghanistan and Iraq”, International Security, 30 (3) (Winter 2005-06), 161-176.

Cohen, Eliot, A, ‘Change and Transformation in Military Affairs’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol, 27, No. 3, (2003).

Gray, Colin, S, Strategy For Chaos: Revolutions in Military Affairs and the Evidence of History (London: Frank Cass, 2002).

Donald H. Rumsfeld, “Transforming the Military,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 81, N°. 3 (May-June 2002), 20-32.

Clifford J. Rogers, ed., The Military Revolution Debate. Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995)

Echevarria II, Antulio, J, ‘War and Politics: The Revolution in Military Affairs and the Continued Relevance of Clausewitz’, Joint Forces Quarterly (Winter, 1995), 76-82.

William H. McNeill, The Pursuit of Power. Technology, Armed Force, and Society since A. D. 1000 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1982)

Steven Metz, ‘A Wake for Clausewitz: Toward a Philosophy of 21st Century Warfare’ Parameters, (Winter, 1994-1995).

Simon Cottle, Mediatized Conflict (Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2006), chapters 1 & 5

Andrew Hoskins & Ben O’Loughlin, War And Media: The Emergence of Diffused War (Cambridge: CUP, 2010), chapters 1 & 4

Andrew Hoskins, Televising War: From Vietnam to Iraq (London: Continuum, 2004), 1-9, 45-76

Piers Robinson, The CNN Effect: the Myth of news foreign policy and Intervention (London: Routledge, 2002), chapters 1 & 3

Milena Michalski & James Gow, War, Image and Legitimacy: Viewing Contemporary Conflict (Routledge: London, 2007), chapter 1 & 5

RECOMMENDED READING

Edward Newman, “The “New Wars” Debate: A Historical Perspective is Needed,” Security Dialogue, Vol. 35, N°. 2, (2004), 173-189.

Christopher Coker, War in an Age of Risk (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009), 1-27, 62-102

Colin Gray, Another Bloody Century (London; Weidnfeld & Nicholson, 2005), Smith, Rupert, The Utility Of Force, The Art Of War In The Modern World (London, Penguin Group, 2005), chapter 4

Smith, Rupert, The Utility Of Force, The Art Of War In The Modern World (London, Penguin Group, 2005).

Stathis N Kalyvas, ‘“New” And “Old” Civil Wars: A Valid Distinction? World Politics, 54: 1 (October, 2001), 99-118.

M Berdal, ‘How New are the New Wars? Global Economic Change and the Study of Civil War’, Global Governance, 9(4), 2003

Christopher Daase, ‘Clausewitz and Small Wars’, in Hew Strachan and Andreas Herberg-Rothe (ed.), Clausewitz in the Twenty-First Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 183-195.

Kinross, Stuart, ‘Clausewitz and Low-Intensity Conflict’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol, 27, No. 1, (March, 2004), 35-58.

Martin Shaw, The New Western Way of War (London: Polity Press, 2005).

Lacina, Bethany, ‘Civil Conflict after the Cold War’, Security Dialogue, 35: 2, (2004), 191-205.

Jeremy Black, War in the New Century (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001).

Paul Collier, ‘Doing Well out of War: An Economic Perspective’, in Mats Berdal and David, M Malone, Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher, 2000), 91-112.

Keen, David, ‘The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars’, Adelphi Paper, 320, (London: International Institute of Strategic Studies.1998)

David Welch, ‘Winning Hearts and Minds: The Changing Context of Reportage and Propaganda, 1990 – 2003’, in Mark Connelly & David Welch (ed.) War and the media: reportage and propaganda 1900 -2003 (London: I. B. Tauris, 2005), xi

Philip Seib, The Al-jazeera Effect: How the New Global Media are Reshaping War (Basingstoke; Palgrave, 2008).

Susan Carruthers, ‘Missing in Autheticity? Media War in the Digital Age’, in Mark Connelly & David Welch (ed.) War and the media: reportage and propaganda 1900 -2003 (London: I. B. Tauris, 2005), 236 - 250

Sarah Maltby, ‘Communicating War: Strategies and Implications’, in Sarah Maltby & Richard Keeble (ed.) Communicating War: Memory, Media and Military ((Bury st Edmonds: Arima Publishing, 2007), 1-17

Marvin Kalb and Carol Saivetz, ‘The Israeli-Hezbollah War of 2006: The Media as a Weapon in Asymmetric Conflict, The Harvard International Journal of Press/politics (2007), 43-66

E. Gilboa, ‘The CNN Effect: The Search for a Communication Theory of International Relations’, Political Communication, Vol 22 (2005), 27-44

David Culbert, ‘American Television Coverage of the Vietnam War: The Loan Execution Footage, the Tet Offensive (1968) and the Contetualization of Visual’, in Mark Connelly & David Welch (ed.) War and the media: reportage and propaganda 1900 -2003 (London: I. B. Tauris, 2005), 204 - 213

Richard Keeble, ‘The Necessary Spectacular ‘Victories’: New Militarism, the Mainstream Media and the Manufacture of the Two Gulf Conflicts 1991 and 2003’, in Sarah Maltby & Richard Keeble (ed.) Communicating War: Memory, Media and Military ((Bury st Edmonds: Arima Publishing, 2007), 200-212

James Der Darian, Virtuous War: Mapping The Military industrial-media-entertainment Network (Boulder: Westview Press ) Chapters 6-12

Steve Tatham, Losing Arab Hearts and Minds: The Coalition, Al Jazeera and Muslim Public Opinion (Hurst and Co; London, 2006), chapters 5 & 6

Kenneth Payne, ‘The Media as an Instrument of War’, Parameters (Spring 2005), 81-93

Susan Carruthers, The Media at War: Communication and conflict in the Twentieth Century (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000)

Tarak Barkawi & Shane Brighton, ‘Conclusion: Absent War Studies? War, Knowledge, and Critque’, in Hew Strachan and Sibylle Scheipers (ed.) The Changing Character of War (OUP 2011)

Columba Peoples, ‘Strategic Studies and its Critics’, in John Balyis, James J Wirtz, Colin S Gray (ed.) Strategy in the Contemporary World; an introduction to Strategic Studies, 3rd Edition (Oxford, OUP, 2010), 354-371

Lawrence Freedman, ‘Does Strategic Studies have a Future?’, in John Balyis, James J Wirtz, Colin S Gray (ed.) Strategy in the Contemporary World; an introduction to Strategic Studies, 3rd Edition (Oxford, OUP, 2010), 391-409

Michael C Horowitz & Dan A Shalmon, ‘The Future of War and American Military Strategy’, Orbis, Vol, 53, No. 2 (2009), 300-318

H. R. McMaster, ‘Learning from Contemporary Conflicts to Prepare for Future War’, Orbis, Vol 52, No. 4 (2008), 564-584

Macgregor Knox, ‘Thinking War – History Lite?’ Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol 34, No. 4 (2011), 489-500

Thomas G. Mahnken, ‘The Evolution of Strategy... But what about Policy?’ Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol 34, No. 4 (2011), 483-487

Hew Strachan, ‘Strategy in the Twenty-first Century’, in Hew Strachan and Sibylle Scheipers (ed.) The Changing Character of War (OUP 2011)

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